During artificial insemination spermatozoa are deposited artificially in the female genital tract using specialized instruments and techniques that circumvent sexual intercourse. In most cases, spermatozoa are introduced into the uterine cavity (intrauterine insemination).
In artificial insemination there are two possibilities:
1. Homologous artificial insemination or artificial insemination from husband (AIH)
It is performed by introducing sperm, from the husband or partner, once properly treated in the laboratory, into the uterine cavity of the patient.
It is indicated in:
• Failure to obtain a pregnancy through timed intercourse.
• Altered ovulation.
• Abnormal interaction between sperm and cervical mucus
• Presence of anti sperm antibodies
• Slight decrease in the number, mobility or morphology of sperm.
• Difficulty of penetration of sperm into the uterine cavity.
• Ejaculation disorders.
• Sterility of unknown origin.
One or two inseminations can be done per cycle, depending on the personal characteristics and those of the cycle. In the case in which more than four follicles develop to a periovulatory phase, it is recommended to cancel the intervention due to the high risk of multiple pregnancies.
The ejaculate sample is treated in the laboratory to concentrate and capacitate the spermatozoa, thereby achieving an optimal separation of the best spermatozoa that will later be placed in the patient's uterus. In these conditions, fertilization occurs naturally inside the woman's body.
The advantage of artificial insemination is that it is a minimally invasive process, with a low emotional commitment, absolutely painless, and that it does not require anesthesia, since the introduction of the sperm sample into the uterine cavity is carried out with a flexible and fine catheter.
2. Heterologous artificial insemination or artificial insemination from donor (AID)
It is carried out by introducing spermatozoa from a donor, previously selected and treated, into the uterine cavity of the patient.
It is indicated in:
• Secretory azoospermia (absence of spermatozoa and immature germ cells in the testis).
• Poor sperm quality that does not allow AIH (high number of immotile, abnormal or dead spermatozoa) or when the couple failed in previous attempts at AIH or does not want to have recourse to in vitro fertilization.
• Chromosomal or genetic alterations in man.
One or two inseminations per menstrual cycle can be done, depending on the patients’ personal characteristics and those of the cycle.The techniques used and the precautions to be taken are the same as in the case of AIH.