There is a wide range of spermatic proofs that can help us to understand why a couple is suffering from infertility.
Ejaculate analysis is divided into three parts:
- Macroscopic exam: liquefaction time, colour, volume, viscosity and pH.
- Microscopic exam: concentration, motility, viability, nuclear development, agglutination, morphology and MAR test.
- Functional exam: Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS test), REM Training Test, Survival Test, sperm DNA fragmentation.
If any other spermatic alteration is suspected, there are other complementary proofs such as:
- Prostate function markers: citrid acid, zinc, acid phosphatase.
- Seminal vesicle markers: fructose and prostaglandins, alkaline phosphatase.
- Epididymis markers: free L-Carnitine, glycerol phosphatidylcholine, alpha-glucosidase, maltase.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): germinal epithelium function.
- Luteinizing hormone (LH): testicular interstice and Leydig cells function.
- Testosterone: testicular endocrine function.
Germ immature cells identification.
Spermatocyte, type.I and II.
Round and long spermatids.