Low fertility or high infertility has become a common problem nowadays. A percentage of 15-20 of couples suffer from these problems. This may be caused by some different factors, such as high intake of alcohol, drugs, tobacco, or, due to professional reasons, the moment of having children is delayed, which is the reason for a lot of couples to have problems of infertility.
The desire of having a baby is something natural, and couples plan to have children some moment in their common life; so we all assume having a baby is something natural. When problems arise, the couple could be affected by an emotional crisis.
This crisis is caused by: physical conditions causing infertility, medical treatments and clinical operation to treat this, lack of information in our society, family and friends reaction and physiological characteristics of the patients. And because of that, it is essential that the couple have a correct diagnosis to their infertility problem, a correct analysis and treatment, together with detailed information about possibilities and techniques used in every step of the process.
Nowadays, infertility is a problem that can be solved in the majority of the cases. But to reach this aim, a deep study must be held to know what is causing infertility and to indicate a correct diagnosis to solve the problem of the couple, reaching the final aim: to get pregnant and give birth to a healthy baby.
A percentage of 80-95 of couples achieve a pregnancy after having the right diagnosis and waiting for the right period of time. This percentage can change depending on the causes producing infertility.
There are a lot of different causes of infertility: a percentage of 40 is related to male problems; a percentage of 40 is related to female problems; a percentage of 15 is related to both partners problems. Finally, there is a 5% of unknown causes.
Main causes of male infertility are those related with faulty sperm, such as: low number of spermatozoa, low or total lack of motility, a lot of abnormal forms, died spermatozoa, lack of acrosoma (vesicle having enzymes needed to get into the egg and fertilize it) or high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. There are also another important causes of male infertility, such as varicocele, secretory azoospermia (lack of testicular sperm), obstructive azoospermia (lack of ejaculate sperm, not testicular sperm), and undescended testicle, a sexual dysfunction.
Main causes of female infertility are: ovarian failure, fallopian tubes alterations, womb dysfunction, endometriosis, adhesions, high prolactin levels, cervical factor and others.
In a lot of cases, male and female problems can be related, making it difficult for gametes to join and/ or get pregnant.
Nowadays, woman’s age is a very important factor to take into account, because from 35 years on, ovaries begin to loose the capacity of producing good quality eggs. From 40 years on, the number of eggs slows down and do not have very good quality. This is the moment when reproductive problem appears. Women did not have a baby because of their work lifes or because they did not find the desired moment to get pregnant. These problems can be solved with assisted reproduction, using their own or donor eggs.